4.1 Spatial Data Technologies (SDT)
- Concerned with defining concepts, relationships, and operations
pertinent to geo-spatial domain
Standards (metadata, vocabulary, functionality,
Representations (physical, conceptual, and
Data quality & Uncertainty
II. System Issues
- for efficient representation of spatial data analysis and
Role of advanced technologies :
Distributed & high performance
Data processing using high performance
software and hardware
Dissemination of data to remote clients
Data clearinghouse development
Indian language support
Voice based interaction
- Query optimization / storage structures
- Open / public domain implementation of GIS
- Object-oriented database design and management
III. Functionality - to enhance
the capability of SDT
Spatial data mining and knowledge discovery
Object oriented image analysis
Content based image retrieval
Spatial models to represent real
Predictive spatial interactive models
- innovative solutions to location specific problems using
Decision support systems in different sectors.
Application specific models - development
of new models, adaptation of existing models, development
of model base management systems
V. Policies and socio-legal
Information policies at Government level
Economics of data
Access to Government data
Role and benefits for local users
Security and ownership
Assessment of impact of SDT on society
VI. Capacity building
Training manpower, deployment of technologies
developed, distance education, development of educational
content for different levels of users
4.2 Advanced Technology Application
in High Resolution Spatial Data Gathering
4.2.1 Remote Sensing
Hyperspectral Imaging -
- Development of appropriate indices, band combinations
etc. for information extraction
- Employment of hyperspectral data in applications relating
to Agriculture,Landuse classification, Mineral targeting,
Forestry, Ecology and other related areas.
Microwave Remote Sensing including SAR
Refinement of soil moisture estimation
technique using Microwave Remote Sensing methodsDevelopment and improvement
of microwave probes / sensors for ground measurements of soil moisture
Development of indigenous SAR Interferometric
data processing tools
Improve techniques of high resolution
topographic information generation by employing SAR Interferometry
Application of SAR Interferometry in
estimation of waterflow from glacial melt, land subsidence, landslides and in
- Create state of the art facilities spread over research
and academic institutions in the country to provide opportunities
to the scientists to understand and explore the capabilities
of SAR Interferometry
- Airborne Laser Terrain Mapping
Explore the technical & economics
of ALTM technology in gathering height information in different
physiographic setups through pilot scale projects.
Organise awareness workshops to disseminate
the research findings
High Resolution Satellite images.
- Promote R&D in application of high-resolution satellite
images in construction and updating of spatial information
for block and village level planning.
- Support training programmes and workshops in image
interpretation and information extraction
Use of thermal remote sensing
- Support application studies in the use of thermal images
in resource estimation
4.2.2 Adaptation of new technologies
Application of Global Positioning System
Development of easy interfaces with
GPS for deployment in the field for data collection using
the local level manpower.
Organize Training programmes on the
concepts and application of GPS in spatial data gathering.
Support R&D studies in the application
of GPS technology in spatial planning
Use of Ground Penetration Radar
- Application in specific studies relating to agriculture,
planning etc. to be supported.
4.3 Land & Water Management at local
4.3.1 Data infrastructure
Research on standardization of data collection,
and data density.
R & D in object-oriented database design
and management (SDT)
Building of knowledge bases in relation
to local preferences
Risk assessment relating to extreme events.
Assessing data needs at the watershed level
for different agro-climatic regions to provide information for watershed management and
Standard national codification of natural
resources (like watersheds up to micro and mini level, flora
, fauna etc.).
4.3.2 Technology development
Development and improvement of models
for local area planning including urban area for which one
can integrate the hydrological, ecological, economic, social, institutional and legal aspects of land
& water issues for developing multi-objective DSS and SDSSs for different ecosystems.
Environmental Impact Assessment.
Improved water management practices - Salinity
ingress prevention, pollution abetment, recycling and reuse
of water, geo-thermal water, irrigation methods, wetland management,
vector harvesting groundwater recharge etc.
Improved land management practices including
land related problem studies.
Assessment of water quality.
Ecological modeling - Dynamics of Biodiversity
Coastal zone management technologies
4.3.3 Technology transfer
Technology transfer & technological capacity
building at local level through:
Training in Land & water management
technologies relevant for local area/watershed planning.
Development of web-based tools and technologies
for better land and water management.
Education curricula on locally relevant
sustainable water management.
Training at village, in water resources
identification, quality assessment and control of pollution and adoption of water harvesting
4.4 Technology Transfer and Capacity
4.4.1 Technology Transfer
Setting up of multi-tier training infrastructure
in NRDMS echnologies at national, regional/ state, and local levels to cater to
the raining needs of de-centralised planning.
Setting up of pilot NRDMS center at least
in one district of uncovered states.
Setting up of model information hubs at
selected block / Village Panchayats or micro-watersheds in
various NRDMS districts in already-covered states by linking
them up to the district NRDMS centers to facilitate easy access
to resource information.
Setting up of similar networks in each
of the uncovered states for subsequent expansion and maintenance
by the State Governments, District Administration, Local Communities,
Coverage of urban areas to facilitate capacity
nagarpalikas in relevant themes by setting up similar networks
Development of different training
kits, modules, e-tutors for different target groups in
spatial database development,
up-gradation & maintenance
information retrieval relevant
to local level planning
- Customization of GIS tools for different target groups and
dissemination of the tools with packaged area-specific data
sets for their immediate use.
Training of people at community level
in map reading & large-scale
- Preparation of GIS-based digital atlases for schools/colleges
for the training of students on spatial data retrieval using
on pilot basis.
4.4.3 Technology transfer
& Capacity Building
For More Details, Please See the
- Dissemination of spatial data sets, products and technologies
(GRAM++ and GRAM++ based technologies) to local self-governance
institutions, NGOs, schools, colleges, Line Departments etc.
- Popularisation of customized GIS tools to cater to the specific
needs of development schemes/programmes in operation at the
districts or below
- Building up of technical and institutional capacities of local
institutions of self-governance, government officials, NGOs
and individuals as well as local technical institutions for
absorption of NRDMS technologies and tools at different levels.